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What was the process?9. Describe the sample size for this study. (2 points) numerical value10. Describe and define the types of selection bias both present and potentially present in this study. (10 points) several bulleted paragraphs; use your text and the YES Observational Studies and Bias lab exercise to discuss the five specific types of selection bias.
Be thorough and specific and discuss the five types of selection bias possible, even if the researchers did not address them. This is where you will apply critical analysis to bias. 11. Describe and define the types of information bias present and potentially present in this study. (10 points) several bulleted paragraphs; Use your text and the YES Observational Studies and Bias lab exercise to discuss the four specific types of information bias.
— Be thorough, specific, and discuss the four types of selection bias possible, even if the researchers did not address them. This is where you will apply critical analysis to bias. 12. List/describe confounding variables researchers controlled for in the study. What did the researchers fail to control for? (6 points) several paragraphs or one long well-structured essay
If you do not understand confounding, go research it. What did the researchers control for? What did they fail to control for that are of concern in relation to their conclusions (think outside the box here, think about the population under study: country, culture, socio-economic status, etc.)? Section: Analysis of Data (5 points total)
13. During the statistical analysis, what measures of association were used? (5 points)
short answer, < 160 characters What statistical measures did the researchers use? Be specific and thoroughSection: Interpretation of Data (33 points) 14. Give the major results, both text and from tables. (5 points) bullet points or paragraphs You must show evidence that you have critically evaluated the researchers results Do not cut and paste or you will receive a zero for this question 15. How was the interpretation affected by selection bias, information bias, and confounding? (10 points) three paragraphs You identified the types of bias in this article earlier. How did these biases influence the researchers interpretation of the results and the conclusions? How did uncontrolled confounders alter the study results and conclusions? 16. How could the interpretation of study results be affected by misclassification? (5 points) -- one to two paragraphs What is misclassification? How does it occur? How could misclassification occur in this study and how does that affect or potentially affect the study conclusions?17. What were the limitations of the study? Were adequately addressed? Why or why not? (4 points) one to two paragraphs What did the researchers report as limitations to their study? What did they compare their study to? 18. Are the conclusions justified by the findings? Why or why not? (4 points) -- one to two paragraphs19. Does this study have external validity? Who can the study be generalized to? (5 points) one to two paragraphs; be specific and thorough