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17.21 For each of the following, identify the independent variable(s), the dependent variable(s), and thelevel of measurement (nominal, ordinal, scale).a. The number of loads of laundry washed per month was tracked for women and men living in collegedorms.b. A researcher interested in peopleâs need to maintain social image collected data on the number ofmiles on someoneâs car and his or her rank for âneed for approvalâ out of the 183 people studied.c. A professor of social science was interested in whether involvement in campus life is signi?cantlyimpacted by whether a student lives on or off campus. Thirty-seven students living on campus and 37students living off campus were asked whether they were an active member of a club.17.22 Use this calculation table for the chi-square test for goodness of ?t to complete this exercise.a. Calculate degrees of freedom for this chi-square test for goodness of ?t.b. Perform all of the calculations to complete this table.c. Compute the chi-square statistic.17.26 The following table (output from SPSS) represents the observed frequencies for the datapresented in Exercise 17.24 (I put just below this question) and the adjusted standardized residuals foreach of the cells. Using this information and the criterion of 2, indicate for which of these cells there is asigni?cant difference between the observed and the expected frequencies.17.38 Gender, ESPN, and chi square: Many of the numbers we see in the news could be analyzed with chisquare. The feminist blog Culturally Disoriented examined the photos in the 2012 âbody issueâ of ESPNThe Magazine âthe publicationâs annual spread of photographs of nude athletes. The blogger reported:âFemale athlete after female athlete was photographed not as a talented, powerful sportswoman, butasâ¦eye candyâ (http://culturallydisoriented.wordpress.com/2012/07/12/the-bodies-we-want-femaleathletes-in-espn-magazines-body-issue/). The blogger reported that there were 19 photos of maleathletes and 17 of female athletes. Of these, 15 of the men were in active poses and 9 of the womenwere in active poses. Active poses were typically those in which they were engaged in their sport,whereas the passive photos looked more like a modeling shootââwhere theyâre just looking hot for thecamera,â in the words of Culturally Disoriented.a. Why is a chi-square statistical analysis a good choice for these data? Which kind of chi-square testshould you use? Explain your answer.b. Conduct the six steps of hypothesis testing for this example.c. Calculate an effect size. Explain why there might be a fairly substantial effect size even though we werenot able to reject the null hypothesis.d. Report the statistics as you would in a journal article.e. Construct a table that shows only the appropriate conditional proportions for this exampleâthat is,the proportion of people in active poses given that they are men or women.f. Construct a graph that displays these conditional proportions.g. Calculate the relative likelihood of being photo-graphed in an active pose if you are a male athletecompared to if you are a female athlete.17.40 Police lineups, SPSS, and adjusted standardized residual: In Check Your Learning 17-8, weintroduced the example of the Chicago Police Departmentâs study of lineups. Below is a printout fromSPSS software that depicts the data for the six cells.a. For simultaneous lineups, what is the observed frequency for the identi?cation of suspects?b. For sequential lineups, what is the expected frequency for the identi?cation of a person other thanthe suspect?c. For simultaneous lineups, what is the adjusted standardized residual for cases in which there was noidenti?cation? What does this number indicate?d. If you were to use an adjusted standardized residual criterion of 2 (regardless of the sign), for whichcells would you conclude that the difference be-tween observed frequency and expected frequency isgreater than you would expect if the two variables were independent?e. Repeat part (d) for an adjusted standardized residual criterion of 3 (regardless of the sign).