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Question 1. [4 marks] The following table was extracted from an article published in the Australian
Dental Journal. It relates to a cross-sectional survey of adult dental patients. Provide answers to one
decimal place. [Show working/reasoning].
(a) What percentage of patients who smoked were born in Australia/New Zealand?
(b) What percentage of the total sample were non-smokers born in Australia/New Zealand?
(c) What percentage of patients who smoked reported having 1 or more of their five closest
friends also being smokers?
(d) What percentage of patients who lived with others who smoke were smokers?
Question 2. [2 marks] The following table was extracted from an article published in the
Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology Journal. As best you can, calculate the mean DMFT
index for the Total group that has been blocked out. Provide answer to two decimal places and
Question 3. [14 marks] This question relates to the file bsn81.sav. See the doc on “Description of
datasets” for information on this dataset. Use SPSS and the file bsn81.sav to produce the requested
output and answer the following questions.
(a) Obtain the frequency distribution for EXERCISE and highlight in your output
(i) the percentage with EXERCISE = 0 and (ii) the percentage with EXERCISE = 0-3.
(b) Produce a single table that shows, for each SMOKING group, the count and percentage with
EXERCISE 0, 1-6, 7. Comment on the differences in percentages across SMOKING groups.
(c) Obtain a histogram for CHOL and comment on the shape of the distribution.
(d) Produce a single table that shows the count and mean CHOL by SEX and SMOKING
groups. Highlight in your table the mean CHOL for males that never smoked and the mean
CHOL for females that never smoked.
Comment on the observed relationship between CHOL and SMOKING in males and
(e) Produce a bar chart that shows percent with high cholesterol (ie CHOL>7.0) by SMOKING
groups and SEX.
Make comments that compare the difference in the percent with high cholesterol across
SMOKING groups in males and females.
(f) Obtain, separately for males and females, percentiles for HEIGHT and highlight in your
output the lower quartile, median and upper quartile values for HEIGHT for males and
females. What are the intervals that contain the middle 90% of HEIGHTS for males and
(g) Produce a graph that shows the relationship between FVC and HEIGHT. Comment on the
nature of the relationship.
(h) Produce what you think is the most suitable graph that shows the relationship between FEV
and SMOKING in males and females. Comment on the nature of the relationship in males
(i) The mean arterial pressure (MAP) is a term used in medicine to describe an average blood
pressure in an individual. It is defined as the average arterial pressure during a single cardiac
cycle. At normal resting heart rates MAP can be calculated as MAP = DBP + (SBP-DBP)/3.
MAP is normally from 65 to110 mm Hg. Calculate MAP for the sample of adults in the
bsn81 data file and use SPSS to obtain the percentage of males and females with a normal
level of MAP. Explain method, provide output and highlight the percentage for males and
females in your output.