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Attached will be two articles in which the writer will both summarize and answer the questions listed below both critically and analytically. Incorporate answers from the following questions into the essay: 1. What is the purpose of punishment….incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, other? 2. How much discretion do judges have in the sentencing decision? 3. Under a more “indeterminate” sentencing structure judges have more latitude to sentence? Why? 4. Under a more “determinate” sentencing structure judges have less latitude to sentence? Why? 5. How much discretion “SHOULD” judges have? 6. If judicial discretion is constrained, who within the CJ system do you believe would have an increase in discretionary power? 7. Based on Spohn’s article: Have the reform efforts over the past 40+ years led to more fair and consistent sentencing outcomes? To what extent have reform efforts led to a reduction in crime? To what extent have reform efforts reduced racial disparity? How do drugs and violent crime fit into imprisonment and racial disparity? 8. Finally, based on Spohn’s article, as well as her reference to Tonry’s article and suggestions, what is YOUR INFORMED opinion as to how the U.S. may best decrease its reliance upon prison use? Please note that this should be APA format. You need not list the questions out in the essay and answer, but simply write the essay addressing/answering the aforementioned questions while simultaneously summarizing the article. Intro and closing required.