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Manager can be
define as a leader in any organisation who is responsible for planning,
organising, controlling the affair of the organisation for the development of
the organisation. Manager also supervises the overall performance of employee
in their department and also control and organise the organisation resources
For example, all organisations require a leader
such as manager to direct the affair of the company, e.g. fair foundation
resort centre, a 56 resorts room in the heart of Ikogosi in Ekiti state of
Nigeria, has a lead manager in all its departmental sectors like fair
foundation resort manager, field manager, restaurant manager etc.
Management styles are styles use to help the
organisation function well and help in creating the best culture and good
policy the organisation. Let us look at management background, in order to
differentiate with our modern management styles,
In the beginning there are two styles of
management styles, the Ancient management, which focus on the Egypt and China
management styles. The Egypt is the Pyramids kind of management that is the
head on the tip of the pyramids. While China is like that of a Great Wall which
signify big wall between the leader and their subordinates.
The Adam smith
of management styles make it compulsory that in order to function very well,
you will need to employ the act of division of labour such as job
specification, job description which it was believe it help the management to
increase the worker productivity.
Division of labour is the process where
individual are allocated a specific job in order to complete a task or
producing a product. For example, an organisation whose task is to assemble a
car with the components delivered.
This organisation need to adhere to the
management styles of using division of labour where all the assembling
department manager will employed staff with different skills and specialised on
each part of the car; that is one staff on each section of the car and each
sector passes it to other sector for complete their part of the job thereby
making the job efficient and done satisfactory.
industrial revolution is the revolution where human labour has been exchange
for machine power, which creates needs for management. In this, most of the car
assembling plant is not manually done but by machine power which is more
efficient than human division of labour.
Let us look into
different types of management styles, there are six types of management styles e.g.
scientific management, general administrative theory, quantitative management,
organisational behaviour and systems approach
This management styles was the hand
work of Frederick Winslow Taylor who believes that the best way to get a job
done is one best way. In his analysis, it made us believe that using the
scientific method to management in organisation will improve the organisation
productivity by the way tasks were performed and simplified. It advocates that
by simplifying the job then workers needs to be trained in their specialised
It further argues that before the scientific management, organisation
works are done by skilled craftsmanship and perform their job by their own
discretion. But believing that the scientific management will take away the
autonomy that was in system before the scientific management application where
the skilled craftsman job can be converted into many simplified jobs for
the unskilled worker who will only needs to be trained to perform the job
Frederick Taylor further states; that
by providing economic incentives to the worker will increase the productivity
and efficiency. It uses the pig iron
example to justify his believes that if incentives were given to workers who is
moving 12.5tons of pig iron per day, he will move 47.5tons per day.
While Frank and Gilbreth’s look deep on
increasing workers’ productivity through the reduction of wasted motion, where
he develop micro chronometer to time worker motion and optimise performance. He
uses the Bricklaying experiment to determine the dramatic decrease in the
number of motions required to lay bricks.
In our today management styles, it was
confirmed by United States congress investigation when the use of stopwatches
was protested by factories worker. After the investigation it was rule by the
congress that scientific management should be continue to be used in all
organisation. The today manager use of time and motion studies to increase
productivity and also they make sure that best qualify staff are employed to
performed a specific job. In today manager gives all kinds of incentive to
their employees based on the output or target given and met.
This is the kind
of approach in an organisation that work with a number of parts and function interdependently
to produce a purpose result or target. It looks as a whole or part of a larger environment
in which this part will definitely affect all other parts of the organisation.
There are two types of system approach; open close system and closed system.
This is a system
that interacts with it environment, for example an organisation that will only
function with it environment such as customers, suppliers, competitors, and government.
That is a manufacturing organisation that produce chocolate will need it
environment to supply the raw materials, customer to buy it products etc.
In open system, interact with other system are
more flexible, and as an entity that takes inputs from the environment,
transform and releases them as outputs which becomes part and parcel of the
environment in which it operates.
This is the system that does not or having little interaction
with it environment, this system only operates within itself that is it input
and output is internal. This is conceives of the organisation as s system of
management, technology, personnel, equipment and materials but tends to exclude
competitors, suppliers, distributors, and governmental regulators. Furthermore,
in contrast to closed-systems, the open-system perspective does not assume that
the environment is static. Instead, change is the rule rather than the
encourages managers to focus on better communication and cooperation within the
organisation and it help to view their organisation as part of a whole. It
makes managers aware good internal management of the organisation may not be
enough to ensure stability and how it affects specific parts of the
This is a backup
plan and is usually called situation approach which means there is no one
approaches to manage an organisation. It made known
that organisation situations are different and require different ways of
In the historical perception,
it was emphasis by Fayol and Taylor their management principles can only make
companies more successful but in 1950s and 60s the thinkers believe their
approach does not consider environment contingencies but later the Fayol and
Taylor recognise that situation factors were relevant and called it contingency
school of management.
The organisational size is one
of the variable that impact the effectiveness of other different organisation,
this is smaller organisation behave informally while larger organisation become
more formalised. In that the small organisation owner can have a direct control
of most things in the organisation but larger organisation will require a
complex and indirect control which will involve specialised staff, units and
looking at all this types of
system, we will know that they tend to change due to; learning
organisation, that is organisation has develop a continuous learning to improve
their product and service and the ability to adapt and change situation and environment such as political,
Globalisation has put more management in
international organisation where the global market is determined by the
political and cultural challenges. The workforce has increase in heterogeneity
where there are more gender, ethnic, minority and other diversity in employees.
It make older people to stay in employment
over their retirement period and their cost of public and private for
older workers has increased and there are more demand for older people product
1.2 DISCUS LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTIC
leader can be define as someone who is been followed by a
numbers of people or an act of leading and directing the affairs of it team or
an organisation to fulfilled their vision. There different types of leadership,
it could be a religion leader, political leader, company leader, community
leader,. An example of company leader is called the Chief Executive Officer
(CEO). To be a leader you must a person of vision, because it is the vision
that drives a leader. Also a leader must have the ability to influence people
to follow him in his pursue for excellence in the organisation.
are deferent types of leadership and in the early of 1930s a psychologist
called “Kurt Lewin” in his research of leadership styles, he prove that there
are three types of leadership sties, that is the Autocratic, Democratic and
Laissez-faire but will add another leadership styles called Paternalistic. Let
us look into this leadership styles one by one;
style of leadership makes their decision on their own without asking or taken
other people opinion. They take total control of every decision in their
organisation and what they say is the final. For example, colonel Gadhafi,
Hussein and some other African leaders uses this style of leadership. In that,
he control and makes decision without his minsters and his decision is the
final in any issue that need a decision. His followers have no reason to
challenge his authority. In an organisation this style of leaders will make
their decision in a short time that is quick to make decision as they don’t
accommodate other opinion in their decision making. Also there is no need to
have a team effort for their organisation success or failure.
In this kind of style, decision is fast
comparing to democratic and it will only focus on it direction to meet it
objectives which employees will need to depend on their leader for everything
and might make employees neglected in the affair of the organisation
is the kind of leader run by the head that is more relative to a father and
son, where the father knows it all and the son believe his father judgement.
This style is mostly use in a one man or family business where the head of the
family make decision on the interest of the family. This styles is common in
with Chinese tradition and Confucianism which was incorporated into three
elements that is Autocratic where leaders act without consulting his people and
Benevolent, where leader has the right to lead his people with respect such as
to create love between them. Then the Moral leadership is where it act as a
role model to his follower. In this type of leadership, the followers believe
their leaders know best and his Judgement will be fair to them or the
style makes the people or employees feel important which they believe that
their leader’s decision is for their interest. But there is no room for the
people or employees to make decision on any matter
style is where the people or employee has the right in decision making through
voting, suggestion box and the workers directors. That is they share
information among their team freely and discuss issues openly. This style
encourage his people or their employee to share their ideas so that the leader
can make a good and possible decision and which it will make know his decision
to his board before it is finally become official. For example, an organisation
such fair foundation ltd has a board of directors who meet with the chief
executive officer to deliberate on the issue arising with suggestion from the
employees of the foundation/
this style, if there is any change, it obvious that their followers or
employees will support their leader and people are more motivated because their
people or employees are involved in decision making which can make slow down
decision unlike autocratic where decision is fast and prompt.
style of leadership delegate to his employees a project or task to accomplish
such example is a research institute, etc. employees are allow to do their
things, where a guideline to perform their duty or project. In this kind of
leadership, their subordinate is free to make decision because little direction
is given which can consume time. This also can motivate employees as they are
in control of the project knowing there will be no interruption from the
Also their leaders always provide the
necessary tools for their project but it slow sown productivity. It can be more
effective when members are highly skilled, motivated to work on their own but
could be disastrous when members do not have enough knowledge or experience to
complete and make decision on the projects given.
1.3 Evaluate Communication Process in Selected
This is the
process of passing information from one person or organisation to another
through a certain medium. That is an organisation or person sends information
out and other organisation or person received the information on the other end.
We can say for example, a letter is written and send by one organisation or
friend to another friend or organisation who received the letter sent by his
friend or organisation.
can be demonstrated through mean of telephone, a call is made by one person and
another person received the call on the other end then information is
initiated. It could be by message that is verbal and nonverbal. In all a sender
send and a receiver received a message of information through the channel of
medium in the context which the communication take place.
In most case a feedback could be received from the receiver, which makes the
communication more effective as the receiver has a full understanding of the
message received. Bear in mind communication is not only between two people or
organisation but it could involve more people of organisation. There are different
medium of communicating such as Verbal, Written and Visual. Let us look at this
medium one by one;
This is one of the means of communication which could be informed of
letters and email. It could be kept in a safe file so as to be referred to if
the context of the letter needs a further action.
This is a means of communicating verbally to someone face –to-face and it
could be through telephone conversation. In this kind of communication, the
expression of can be acknowledge through body language. For example, a board
meeting, interviews etc.
This come as a signs and posters which is used communicate to multiple of
people. For example a bill board, is use and place in a strategies place where
people can see what an organisation is trying to communicate. Also
communication could be done internally that is organisation could communicate
within them such as the HR sending internal Job vacancy to all the employees if
they are interested in the vacancy position in the organisation.
While communication can be done both internal
and external that is communicating to another organisation outside the business
such as contractor in the maintenance department or customers who have an
outstanding debt on his account and a supplier who need to supply our raw
This medium can also be formal and informal. That is the formal is the official
means of communication such as letters, report and monthly or weekly
newsletter while the informal are just a chat which is not recognise
officially. In a business environment there are four types of
communication, that is the Downward ,Upward, Sideways and multi-channel which
discernible the flow of communication within an organisation.
Downward, show how
communication flows from higher level such as the CEO to his directors or
managers, employees etc. While upward show communication from the lower level
to the higher level in the organisation such as from employees at the bottom
level of the organisation which allow the manager receive a feedback from job
The sideways show how information are communicated between the same level of
employees in an organisation such employee in a finance department can
communicate through emails to exchange information. The last one is the
Multi-channel which allows all types of flow of information through technology
where information is passing through networking system.
I am going to choose a cooperate organisation called BT SPORTS and will show
how they communicate with their customers and employee, in addition with
what types of medium of communication they are using in their
organisation. BT SPORTS is a UK company, a subsidiary to British
Telecommunication. It is a sport channel like SKY, Virgins etc., they deal with
hosting a sport competition in UK and internationally. They are in the business
of internet, telephone, TV.
Let us look at the medium of communication within the BT SPORTS and to their
BT SPORTS communicate to their customers through different medium to their
customers through the following;
They send letters
and news letters to their customers notify them about subscription, Bills, new
products coming to BT sports. Most of the communication through this
medium could be one way communication as customers may and may not responds to
the written letters or newsletter. Also e-mail is another communication means
that BT Sport uses to reach their customer electronically which is faster and
effective than actual letter sent.
While they communicate with their employees through letter, e-mail and
employees’ new letter which are been send internally. Memo is sent to
departments in the organisation about Team meeting, board meeting, and
signs and posters such as Bill boards, at a strategy place to advertise their
products to the customers and potential customers. Also TV channels where an
advert is shown at the intervals of a programs. Also their employees use
videoing to communicate with other offices during their annual conference or
meeting if one of the directors is not present physically.
They use this medium such as face to face
communication when conversing to new customer through their sales
representative. In this medium, a telephone communication is use sometime when
there is need to speak to customers about their accounts or if customer has
problem with their view card or telephone. Employees use face to face
communicating in their team meeting and within them when information needs to
be share verbally. BT sports uses the multi-channel means of communication
to reach their customer and their employees such as their offices in another country
or in another county.in
1.4 What is Organisational culture and change in
This is the styles of organisation, that is the way
organisation or company behave, within it business, customers and to the
people. We have formal organisational culture which is common in UK and
informal organisational culture which is common in USA. For example, the Army
is known for their discipline culture.
Culture can be divided into two categories that
are visible and invisible. The visible culture mean culture that can
easily be seen from outside by customer and the employee, it follows the way of
artefacts. While the invisible culture means culture that cannot be seen from
outside unless you are part of the organisation and they follow a share value.
There are different types of organisational
cultures such as following;
This is one of the organisational culture
and it is the act of creating new things into the market. Many organisations
are known for their innovation such Apple, car manufacturer such as Mercedes,
Bentley, and jaguar etc. Apple specialised in producing new model of apples
every six months and known for been best in mobile phone and computer
This is the culture when an organisation or
business do these things by the rules. That is they operate by rules and cannot
be change easily unless a resolution is reach by the central department. Such
example of this organisation is government establishment. It made them remain
in business for a long period of years.
This is organisational culture that respects
people which portrays a good image for the organisation. Mostly all
organisations use this culture to attract more customers to their company which
help the organisation product to sell in the market.
This is more important by respecting people help
your business to grow.
This culture is act of achieving good result in
what services they provide to the customers and their employees are trained to
focus in meeting their target. In term of customer excellence become their
This organisation is only interested in money
but take their work less serious. Such example of this type of organisation is
petty trader, one man business, local shops etc.
This types of organisation are concern more
on details rather than just do business such as Banks, Hospital establishments
This culture are people oriented where people
working together to achieve one purpose, for example a car manufacturer have a
common purpose in assembling plant to produce a car ready to be driven.
This culture is more Competitive in their
dealing such as Betting shop, sales services which are more aggressive in
selling their products to their customers.
I would like to analyse the organisational
culture of APPLE COMPUTER, INC.
This is an American multinational corporation that design and sell consumer
electronics, computer software and personal computers.
IMPLEMENTATION; Apple culture is centre in
self-motivated individual, where all employees work and get things done without
any manager pressed on their action. That is placing decision on their
BENCHMARKING; In Apple standard is their
benchmark, producing the best to their customers. It was said apple is just
like a tech version of heaven factory, confusing but delightful that produce
the best items.
ACCOUNTABILITY; Apple enforced and swift
decision. it is where responsibility is clearly define right from the top. All
employees is directly responsible for their action.
TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE; Apple teach it employees
through a weekly meeting to deliberate and learn the right on a project.
Apple remain and survive in the field of personal computer, electronic since it
was established in April 1 1976
INNOVATION; Apple remain one of the innovative organisation,
where creative ideas is their culture. Design is everything to Apple, where
every small team design their product.
Apple is passionate about what they do and
excellence in their day to day projects. They believe if a product is not
perfect it must not get to their customers.
2.1 MANAGEMENT SKILL
Name; EMMANUEL SAKA
I am a good communicator
and a listener which help me to understand people ideas and aspiration. With
the skill I have in coaching, am able to ask question that tailor to find a
solution to problems. I am able to plan and priories my work which help me to
organise and manage my time in a given project or assignment.
I have the ability to lead and motivate my
subordinates which make me to operate very well as a team member. I am problem
solvers, a counsellor who has the ability to handle grievances and able to help
others with their challenges at work or other areas of life. I have a full
understanding of financial matters such as budgeting, profit and loss account
and cash flow. Is a self-develop person who is compassionate in his dealing?
With all this skills I need to find a way of how to
manage relationship, recruiting and selection and the use of IT in planning.
Also I need to improve on how to delegate and manage by example which I was not
able to do a very good performance appraisal planning. I found it difficult to
manage according to standards and procedure.
PERSONAL STRENGHT, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS
strength is unique in way, am good in counselling, motivating and the ability
to change your perception about anything. I have drawn this from Training in
this area and have given me edge among my pears but other sees me as a legal
person who is capable to convinced the Judge that is client is innocent of the
accusation laid against him.
W- I have no much experience in planning, reporting and appraisal planning
of my work and my subordinate. I have few resources in HR policy and how to
manage according the organisation policies. Others see me as a good planner but
has no resource to carry it out that is finding it difficult to perform very
well on my own. I always prefer to work as a team, believing it the best way to
achieve good result.
O- There are good opportunities open to
me, such as taken an HND course, which will in future help me in managing and
planning. I could take more advantage of further training in appraisal HR and
there are much way to turn my strength to opportunity for example, the course
and training with my strength will give me greater opportunity to attain a high
position in management.
T- If I do not work on my weakened, it
might not be able to achieve my vision in the field of hospitality industry .The
area of appraisal, management and social responsibility which has been my
concern could hurt me in becoming a good manager as competitors could swept me
2.3 SET AND PRIORIES OBJECTIVE AND TARGETS TO
DEVELOP YOUR OWN POTENTIAL
My goal is to set up a
charity organisation to raise youth leaders with integrity in all African
countries by the year 2020. In doing this, I have to made the vision known to
people for support and register the organisation as a charity by the December of
2014. At the beginning of the year 2015 up till March, an executive members
meeting will be held to discuss the vision and mission of the organisation and
given the members to know their roles and responsibility.
By the August 2015, a pre-lunching of the
organisation to invites people from very part of the country and our website
will be lunched and all our merchandise are for lunching with open speeches
from three dignitary. Invitation letters will start going out in the beginning
of July 2015.
By the December 2015, the organisation chapters
will be registered in three countries, two from African countries like Nigeria
and Ghana while America will be another chapter. We will set up a
funds raising committee by to source for funding from England and America
precisely by April 2015.
By the end of the year 2016, we intend to have a
total of 5,000 members in all our chapters and hope to open more chapters in
all the rest of African countries by the year 2018. Through this process, we
hope to have raised 10 leaders with integrity in all the African countries by
the year 2020 with a full conference of members in United Kingdom.
Between the year 2018 and 2020, our first integrity
school of thought will be establish and beginning our full leadership and
community training. This will give ways for our youths and community
In the entire above plan, there
could be a time killer in achieving this goal and objectives such as
procrastination in the sense, many a time, I have deviated from my original
plan because one things of the other. For example, at the moment, I tried to
mix my work with the charity organisation. Where I ignore completing an
application form to watch a football match. This has a negative impact on the
setting up the charity formation.
My external distraction is
enormous, from wife, children and entertainment such as social activities. For
example, an adage says the success of a man begins from his home, if my home is
not settle it might district me from keeping to my plan. This could be that
your family does not support your dream which we make it difficult to move
forward as they will be the forces to stand against your goal.
My internal distraction could
come from within me, that is a change of ideas and believe could jeopardise my
plan. Your inner being determine your physical, what you perceive within you
can be negative and this will affect your plan. For example, am set to apply
and finish a course on leadership by the year 2015 but could be push ahead if
my inner thought convinces me there is no need for such training at this time.
Being over schedule with lot of
activities could be a clash and end up not accomplish the plan set. For
example, running a charity need more attention and commitment to achieve the
objective but like me need other income to take care of my family will engage
in another employments which might demand commitment. So if this is match with
the charity schedule it might be over the top and could distract my full
commitment to my plan. This could lead to stress, that is being confused and
unable to know when to do one thing or the other from the plan lay down.
In other to keep to my plan ,I
have devise a mean of managing this plan such as setting myself a time table or
do to do list to keep me in check about every plan set for my goal
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