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During most of the nineteenth century

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During most of the nineteenth century

Part 1 of 2 –

Question 1 of 40 5.0
During most of the nineteenth century, allopathic doctors

A. were highly
respected by the general public.

B. based their
treatment on scientific data.

C. were far better
trained than their competitors.

D. received less than
one year of training.

Question 2 of 40 5.0
In recent years, hospitals have:

A. reduced the number
of outpatient surgeries they perform.

B. shifted to
treating an older and sicker mix of patents.

C. stopped serving as
primary care providers for the poor.

D. abandoned the
practice of patient dumping

Question 3 of 40 5.0
Homeopathic doctors treated illness with:

A. extremely dilute
solutions of drugs.

B. extremely powerful

C. “heroic” measures.

D. purging and

Question 4 of 40 5.0
To become a profession, an occupation must:

A. set its own
education and licensing standards.

B. eliminate all

C. prove its scientific

D. have all members
take courses in ethics.

Question 5 of 40 5.0
Which of the following is NOT a technology?

A. Band-Aids

B. Heart-lung

C. The process of
blood transfusion

D. Fruit salads with
high vitamin C content

Question 6 of 40 5.0
Modern U.S. hospitals most commonly provide:

A. long term care for
the disabled.

B. long term care for
the dying.

C. short term care
for acute illness.

D. long term care for
chronic illness.

Question 7 of 40 5.0
Most hospice clients pay for their care:

A. out of pocket.

B. through private

C. through family

D. with Medicare.

Question 8 of 40 5.0
Compared to conditions in 1900, by the late 1920s:

A. considerably more
medical schools existed.

B. women and blacks
found it easier to obtain medical training.

C. immigrants and
poor whites found it easier to obtain medical training.
D. the quality of
medical training had improved considerably

Question 9 of 40 5.0
Since the 1960s:

A. the percentage of
health care institutions owned by investor-owned corporations has increased.
B. corporations
increasingly have purchased only one kind of health care institution, (such as
only nursing homes or only hospitals).
C. the ratio of
doctors per capita has decreased.

D. the proportion of
doctors in private practice has grown.

Question 10 of 40 5.0
During the first half of the nineteenth century, hospitals:

A. provided care to
all who needed it.

B. kept dying
patients out of sight of other patients.

C. dramatically
reduced mortality rates in urban America.

D. were generally
chaotic and dirty.

Question 11 of 40 5.0
Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A. The majority of
hospice patients have AIDS.

B. On average, those
who use hospices report less satisfaction than those who use conventional
C. Hospice care
shifts costs to families and away from hospitals.

D. Hospices work
primarily with those who have heart disease.

Question 12 of 40 5.0
Paid home health services are:

A. most often used by
poor persons.

B. generally provided
by new doctors.

C. often provided by
home health aides.

D. less common than
in the past.

Question 13 of 40 5.0
The history of CPR illustrates:

A. the scientific
nature of medical practice.

B. Americans’
discomfort with the inevitability of sudden death.

C. why doctors adopt
cost-effective treatments.

D. Americans’
preference for a quick and painless death

Question 14 of 40 5.0
Which of the following is a result of commodification?

A. Keeping nursing
home residents strapped to chairs during the day
B. Purchasing gourmet
foods for nursing home residents

C. Requiring nursing
home residents to shower daily

D. Increased drug use
among nursing home staff

Question 15 of 40 5.0
Hospice care disproportionately serves:

A. patients with

B. patients with

C. patients with
infectious diseases.

D. disabled

Question 16 of 40 5.0
The federal government developed a vested interest in
restraining health care costs following the implementation of:

A. DRGs.

B. HMOs.

C. Medicaid and

D. horizontal

Question 17 of 40 5.0
The system under which the government sets an average length
of hospital stay and costs for in-patient treatment for each possible diagnosis
is known as:

A. retrospective


C. corporatization.

D. diagnostic-related

Question 18 of 40 5.0
U.S. citizens who need nursing home care:

A. generally pay for
it through Medicare.

B. are
disproportionately African-American.

C. often become
paupers as a result.

D. cannot legally be
moved to a lower-quality home if their funds run out.
Question 19 of 40 5.0
In the Netherlands, doctors:

A. can legally end a
patient’s life in certain circumstances.

B. who commit
euthanasia may receive the death penalty.

C. can legally
instruct a patient how to commit suicide painlessly, but cannot end the
patient’s life themselves.
D. who commit
euthanasia can be tried for manslaughter but not for murder
Question 20 of 40 5.0
Another term for “regular doctors” is:

A. allopaths.

B. homeopaths.

C. chiropractors.

D. botanic healers.

Question 21 of 40 5.0
Compared to modern direct-entry midwives, physicians more

A. use unnecessary
and potentially dangerous drugs and surgeries.
B. restrain from
using drugs in the delivery process.

C. support the
demedicalization of birth.

D. offer home birth

Question 22 of 40 5.0
The history of osteopathy suggests how difficult it is to:

A. move from being a
marginal occupation to being a limited occupation.
B. maintain an
independent and unique identity while becoming a parallel profession.
C. improve the
educational standards of a field.

D. gain legal
recognition when a field has many female practitioners
Question 23 of 40 5.0

A. typically train
through apprenticeships.

B. work primarily
with young persons.

C. do not recognize
any western categories of disease.

D. can legally bill
insurance companies for their services.

Question 24 of 40 5.0
Which of the following have the highest status?

A. Licensed practical

B. Registered nurses

C. Advanced practice

D. Diploma nurses

Question 25 of 40 5.0
Men who enter nursing:

A. typically are held
back by discrimination.

B. cluster in less
prestigious specialties.

C. are
overrepresented in emergency room work and underrepresented in pediatrics.
D. tend to have had
childhood problems with sexual identity.

Question 26 of 40 5.0
Optometrists have obtained considerable social status by
limiting their treatments to only one part of the body. This suggests that
optometry is a:

A. semi-profession.

B. limited but not
marginal occupation.

C. parallel

D. marginal but not
limited occupation.

Question 27 of 40 5.0
What is the name of the unit that was established within the
National Institutes of Health in 1992?

A. National Center
for Complementary and Alternative Medicine

B. National Center
for Homeopathic and Disease Medicine

C. National Center
for Acupuncture and Alternative Treatment

D. National Center
for Healing and Giving Waters Treatment

Question 28 of 40 5.0
Which of the following occupations has benefited most from
the rise of managed care?

A. Pharmacists

B. Acupuncturists

C. Lay midwives

D. Allopathic doctors

Question 29 of 40 5.0
In the early twentieth century, those nurses who fought to
raise the status of nursing were hampered by:

A. men’s ideas on

B. women’s abundance
of political power.

C. ideas about men’s
proper role and character.

D. the ethic of
caring and duty

Question 30 of 40 5.0
Which profession meets the three criteria that define a

A. Pharmacy

B. Nursing

C. Lay midwives

D. Acupuncturists

Question 31 of 40 5.0
Which of the following is considered an alternative form of

A. Allopathic

B. Prescription drugs

C. Surgery

D. Reflexology

Question 32 of 40 5.0
Which of the following is true?

A. Lay midwives
typically work at local clinics.

B. With low-risk
populations, home birth conducted by experienced lay midwives is as safe as
doctor-attended hospital births.
C. Babies delivered
by lay midwives are significantly more likely to die than babies delivered by
D. Lay midwifery is
illegal in all 50 states.

Question 33 of 40 5.0
To gain professional status, osteopaths:

A. fought against

B. increased
educational requirements for becoming an osteopath.

C. pushed for the
legitimacy of spinal manipulation and refused to use drug treatments.
D. fought against
merger with allopathic medicine.

Question 34 of 40 5.0
In what year did the last of the 50 states pass legislation
licensing chiropractors?

A. 1956

B. 1974

C. 1982

D. 1995

Question 35 of 40 5.0
Which of the following is true?

A. Acupuncturists
believe that illness can be cured by blocking chi.

B. No scientific
evidence supports the use of acupuncture.

C. In most states,
licensure laws forbid doctors from using acupuncture unless they have trained
specifically in that field.
D. Doctors have
worked to strip acupuncture of its grounding in traditional Chinese medical
Question 36 of 40 5.0
Which of the following helped doctors gain control over childbirth?

A. Religious beliefs
that women should suffer in childbirth

B. The growing belief
that childbirth was a natural biological process
C. Popular prejudice
against immigrants, women, and non-whites

D. Laws supporting
allopathic medicine

Question 37 of 40 5.0
What type of providers are chiropractors currently arguing
to become as they feel they can offer care for the whole family throughout the
life course?

A. Primary care

B. Specialists

C. Emergency

D. Secondary

Question 38 of 40 5.0
Unlike nurse-midwives, which type of professionals had no
formal training but rather learned their skills through experience and
sometimes through informal apprenticeships?

A. Nonpaid midwives

B. Direct-entry

C. Lower level

D. Physician midwives

Question 39 of 40 5.0
Currently, some chiropractors believe that:

A. immunizations are

B. they should serve
as primary care providers.

C. spinal
manipulation can cure most health problems.

D. All of the above

Question 40 of 40 5.0
Florence Nightingale:

A. believed that men
and women should occupy “complete spheres.”

B. believed that
nursing needed a hierarchical structure.

C. saw caring as
inherently both a women’s role and men’s role.

D. guidelines of
caring should apply to British nurses

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