-What is the issue addressed in the paper?

Describe the evidence presented in the paper you selected. Specifically address the following questions:
-What is the issue addressed in the paper?
- What was the exposure or intervention?
-What was the outcome?
-What was the study design?
-What was the study population?
-What were the main findings? 

QUESTION 2:

Do you think there is evidence of a causal association between the exposure and the outcome? This question relates to the internal validity of the study. Consider the following questions in your critique:
-Is there a temporal relationship between exposure and outcome?
-Is there a strong relationship between the exposure and the outcome? 
-Is there a dose-response relationship between exposure and the outcome?
-Are the results consistent within the study? 

QUESTION 3:

To what extent can the observed association between the exposure and outcome be attributed to non-causal explanations? Consider the following questions in your critique:
-Are the results likely to be affected by selection and/or measurement bias?
-Are the results likely to be affected by confounding?
-Are the results likely to be affected by chance variation?

QUESTION 4:

Do the findings accord with other evidence? Specifically: 
-Are the findings consistent with other evidence, particularly evidence from studies of similar or more powerful study design? 
-Are the results plausible in terms of a biological mechanism?

QUESTION 5:

Are the findings externally valid, that is generalisable? Specifically:
-Can the findings be applied to the source population from which the study population was derived?
-Can the study results be applied to other relevant populations? 

 


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