The first thing to do is look at the presentation (PowerPoint). Next, look at the two examples of Progress Maps, and think about how they describe student development along a described continuum. Try to see if you can pin-point the key features of a Progress Map, and record your ideas in a series of dot points. Something like:
A Progress Map has:
A series of clearly identifiable steps.
Steps increase in sophistication, with the least sophisticated element at the bottom.
Steps are described in clear language.
Differences between steps are easily read from the descriptions.
And so on.
Formative assessment has become a major innovation in educators’ thinking about assessment, notwithstanding the emphasis by Governments on purely summative assessment. The original proponents of formative assessment, Sir Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam, summarized their work in the following way.
Black & Wiliam (2009 p.8) suggest that formative assessment can be conceptualized as consisting of five key strategies:
1. Clarifying and sharing learning intentions and criteria for success;
2. Engineering effective classroom discussions and other learning tasks that elicit evidence of student understanding;
3. Providing feedback that moves learners forward;
4. Activating students as instructional resources for one another; and
5. Activating students as the owners of their own learning.
Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 21(1), 5-31.
Point 1 in this list should be noted, as, of course, in Victoria, many teachers think that telling students the learning intention of the lesson, before the start, will ensure learning. Naturally, such a simplistic view is useless, and the focus should be on the second part of the statement: namely, that the criteria for success (in the lesson) must be made clear to the students. For example, “At the end of the lesson I want all of you to have completed making a cube, then finding its net”. Saying this before the lesson is not sensible if the students have not yet heard the words ‘cube’ or ‘net’. However, during the lesson, when the terms have been defined then the criterion (or the criteria if there are more than one) for success should be made clear.
Point 2, engineering effective classroom discussion, is a major aspect of effective teaching, and needs more explanation than we have time for in this Unit. However, Point 3, providing feedback that moves learners forward is a critical aspect of Formative assessment. Think about the Progress Map, as it has the next step on the path to more sophisticated learning for every student. Once a student is placed on the map, the next step is clear, as it is the next more sophisticated aspect of learning required to advance along the learning continuum.
Construct a Progresss Map, a described continuum, for one topic in measurement, such as learning about money or volume. Start with a description of the most fundamental, visible learning that one would expect to see or hear in which a child would engage. Then the next, more sophisticated, and then the next and so on. The PACIFI and Guidelines in Measurement will help in finding the ‘steps’ and the descriptions