Strength of association

Question 1 of 13 0.5 Points

All of the following are true in a Randomized Control Trial except:

 

 A. Baseline characteristics of intervention and control group should be similar. 

 

 B. Investigator`s bias can be minimized by double blinding.

 

 C. The sample size required depends on the hypothesis.

 

 D. The drop-outs from the trial should be excluded from the analysis. 

 

 

Question 2 of 13 0.5 Points

In general, the purpose of including a control condition is to:

 

 A. To encourage potential participants to enroll in the trial

 

 B. To discourage potential participants from enrolling in the trial 

 

 C. To ensure that the treatment and comparison groups are comparable with respect to potential confounders

 D. To provide a comparison arm by which the investigator may gauge the effects of the treatment

 

Question 3 of 13 0.5 Points

Which of the following is true about randomization in an Randomized Control Trial. 

 

 A. We are able to control for known and unknown confounders associated our topic of interest.

 B. Clinical trials are not ethical unless they are completed by randomizing subjects into different groups.

 C. Randomization in control trials will always result in comparable baseline characteristics between the study arm and control arm.

 D. A study can have true randomization and true double blinding, but never both. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 4 of 13 0.5 Points

Why do randomized control trial articles often include a table comparing demographics and other baseline characteristics between the study arm(s) and the control arm? Please select the BEST response. 

 

 A. The outcome effect measure may be inaccurate if there are differences between study arms, but if they are documented, the authors can easily provide an accurate adjusted outcome measure.

 B. To show that randomization resulted in similar proportions of individuals in each arm with respect to baseline characteristics and demographics.

 C. To show that randomization resulted in the same number of people in each arm. 

 

 D. It is generally good practice to include baseline characteristics and demographics in an article.

 

Part 1 of 1 - Part 1

 

Question 1 of 13 0.5 Points

All of the following are true in a Randomized Control Trial except:

 

 A. Baseline characteristics of intervention and control group should be similar. 

 

 B. Investigator`s bias can be minimized by double blinding.

 

 C. The sample size required depends on the hypothesis.

 

 D. The drop-outs from the trial should be excluded from the analysis. 

 

 

Question 2 of 13 0.5 Points

In general, the purpose of including a control condition is to:

 

 A. To encourage potential participants to enroll in the trial

 

 B. To discourage potential participants from enrolling in the trial 

 

 C. To ensure that the treatment and comparison groups are comparable with respect to potential confounders

 D. To provide a comparison arm by which the investigator may gauge the effects of the treatment

 

Question 3 of 13 0.5 Points

Which of the following is true about randomization in an Randomized Control Trial. 

 

 A. We are able to control for known and unknown confounders associated our topic of interest.

 B. Clinical trials are not ethical unless they are completed by randomizing subjects into different groups.

 C. Randomization in control trials will always result in comparable baseline characteristics between the study arm and control arm.

 D. A study can have true randomization and true double blinding, but never both. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 4 of 13 0.5 Points

Why do randomized control trial articles often include a table comparing demographics and other baseline characteristics between the study arm(s) and the control arm? Please select the BEST response. 

 

 A. The outcome effect measure may be inaccurate if there are differences between study arms, but if they are documented, the authors can easily provide an accurate adjusted outcome measure.

 B. To show that randomization resulted in similar proportions of individuals in each arm with respect to baseline characteristics and demographics.

 C. To show that randomization resulted in the same number of people in each arm. 

 

 D. It is generally good practice to include baseline characteristics and demographics in an article.

 

Question 5 of 13 0.5 Points

During recruitment, a physician tasked with finding patients for the study has been selecting individuals with a more severe case of the disease of interest in the study arm as opposed to the control arm. Which type of bias is this most likely to introduce. 

 

 A. Bias due to attrition

 

 B. Information bias

 

 C. Recall bias

 

 D. Selection bias

 

 

Question 6 of 13 0.5 Points

Which of the following is not a factor considered when building a case for a causal relationship

 

 A. Temporality

 

 B. Dose-response relationship

 

 C. Strength of association

 

 D. Coherence with previous hypotheses

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question 7 of 13 0.5 Points

A proposed randomized control trial measuring the effects of a treatment to increase memory in the work setting for healthy individuals is being funded. However, the study requires long hours during the day implementing the treatment and assessing the memory of participants. Furthermore, the study arm requires more time of participants than the control arm, so patients are allowed to state a preference of how much time they can spend at the study when enrolling. Additionally, due to the large number of hours required, remuneration for the study is larger than many other RCTs. As a result, the study population resulted in a large number of unemployed individuals who live near the study site. 10% of both study and control individuals did not complete the study. Which type of bias is most present.

 

 A. Bias due to attrition

 

 B. Information bias

 

 C. Recall bias

 

 D. Volunteer bias

 

 

Question 8 of 13 0.5 Points

If a screening method for blood pressure consistently results in a systolic measure 10 mmHg higher than a conventional blood pressure test, which of the following least describes the test. 

 

 A. Reliability

 

 B. Repeatability

 

 C. Validity

 

 D. Consistency

 

 

Question 10 of 13 1.0 Points

A disease with 3% prevalence can be screened using a test with 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity.

 

Create a 2x2 screening table showing the predicted screening test results for 10,000 screened patients.

 

 

 

 

 

Question 11 of 13 0.5 Points

What is the negative predictive value of the test? 

 

 A. 98.0%

 

 B. 95.0%

 

 C. 99.8%

 

 D. 59.5%

 

 

Question 12 of 13 0.5 Points

Suppose the same screening test, as described above, was applied to another population where the prevalence was lower. Assuming that the sensitivity and specificity remain the same, the predictive value of a POSITIVE test would: 

 

 A. Increase

 

 B. Decrease

 

 C. Stay the same

 

 D. Cannot determine the effect on predictive value from the information given

 

 

Question 13 of 13 0.5 Points

Lead time bias has the following effect on the evaluation of a screening program: 

 

 A. It makes the estimated survival appear worse for those screened compared to those not screened

 B. It has no influence on estimated survival between screened and unscreened groups 

 

 C. It makes the estimated survival appear better for those screened compared to those not screened

 D. None of the above


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