Management Styles

Task 1:
Before we glean into critical analysis of theories developed by Henri Fayol and Frederick Winslow Taylor, it is necessary to understand their backgrounds.
Henry Fayol was inspired by a French economist: Jean Beptiste Say, who was profound proponent of paternalism. Following his line, the deprivation of paternalism made Fayol think that there is lack of administration in the organizations. Ultimately, Fayol presented his theory for management which was more concentrated around administration and command (Dahl, 2015). 
On the other hand, Taylor was an American who inherited a deep impact from American industrialization. Being an engineer, he could not get out from scientific background while proposing a theory. Therefore, he presented a theory that was titled towards scientific management. 
Following is the comparison and contrast of both the theories:
Primary Perspective
Fayol has focused more upon the top management, whereas Taylor has highlighted the floor level.  Fayol has highlighted the roles of managers and the functions that should be performed by them. In contrast to this, Taylor has worked on the processes that are pursued in the organization; especially those processes which are affected by science and technology. 
Administration versus Simplification 
Fayol believed in the fact that organizations can best produce results when they are administered well. While embossing the role of manager, he believed that managers should be dominant and authoritative. They must have control over activities and employees. By stating the principle of unity of command, he asserted the authority of the manager. 
Contrary to this, Taylor did not focus much on the role of manager. As per his thought, an organization can gain best, when it has streamlined its operations. He used time and motion theories to eradicate useless segments of production process, so that employees’ time and their respective costs to employers are saved. 
In short, Fayol believed that managers should play a monitoring and integrating role in the organization to add value, whereas Taylor placed more emphasis on process management and process streamline for value-addition (Haseebur, 2012). 
Target areas
The target areas of Taylor where organizations should seek for improvement are Operations and Production. Whereas, the theory presented by Fayol encompass different functions in an organization including Finance, Operations, Procurement, Human resources and Administration. 
Despite so many differences among the two, there are certain similar aspects also which keep them on same page:
•Both of them believed that enthusiasm and motivation are necessary for employees. For such motivation, role of managers is pivotal for both the theorists. As per Fayol, managers should train their employees and try to engage with them, and Taylor moved a step further by recommending managers to even work with employees, so that they feel motivated. 
•Both aimed at considering and improving the organization, overall. It apparently seems in contradiction to ‘target areas’ discussed above, but this is not the case. Actually, Taylor’s theory revolves around the study of tasks and activities which are in the chain, and Taylor does not restrict to improvise the tasks throughout the organization.

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