In this chapter, information about data collection, data analysis, results of the study, conclusions, limitations, and recommendations are discussed. The sections to be included are detailed below.

Dissertation Chapter

Chapter 4 instructions

In this chapter, information about data collection, data analysis, results of the study, conclusions, limitations, and recommendations are discussed. The sections to be included are detailed below.


This section should provide an introduction to the chapter, the study, and the researcher (in qualitative studies only). It describes the purpose of the chapter and how it is organized. In addition, it discusses how the chapter fits into the overall dissertation. In the case of a qualitative study, the overview also details the researcher’s involvement in the study, and his/her background, training, and experience in conducting the research. Specifically, the overview should discuss the role the researcher played in data collection and analysis, as well as any significant effects the researcher might have had on the participants and/or data at any stage of the research.



This section presents a detailed description of the sample used in the study. It begins with a discussion of sampling procedures and how the sampling was actually conducted. It also describes the size and power of the sample, including descriptive statistics and what the sample size means for the results.

In quantitative studies, the description of the sample should include a discussion of the level and power required by the statistical analyses, and the extent to which external validity (generalization) can be achieved. Items to be included in the discussion are the sampling frame size, the response rate, the number of participants who withdrew during the study, and any other information that might affect the data analysis. The researcher should be certain to maintain confidentiality by carefully describing the sample and focusing on statistical information.

In qualitative studies, in addition to descriptive statistics, the research should discuss any participants who withdrew or were withdrawn from the study, along with the reasons. Any other information about the participants required by the study should also be included. This may involve descriptions of communities, settings, or locations of interviews.

Summary of Results

In this section, each hypothesis (quantitative) or research question (qualitative) should be treated separately. The researcher should take care here to simply summarize the results, and save the analysis for the next section. For each hypothesis or research question, the following information should be provided:

 The analysis(es) that was(were) performed, the assumptions of each test, and why that test is valid for this particular analysis.

 How the analysis(es) was(were) done.

 Data that were analyzed (generally presented as tables or figures).

 The statistics or thematic analysis (quantitative).

 Any other information that demonstrates how the results were obtained.

 A statement as to whether the hypothesis was rejected or not rejected, or the answer to the research question.


Discussion of Results

In this section, the researcher interprets the results of the study in relation to the initial hypothesis(es) or discussion question(s), such that the meanings and implications of the results are explained in detail. This should include a subsection that discusses the implications of the results, and how they relate to the broader framework of scholarly literature. Here, the researcher compares and contrasts findings with those of similar studies in the literature, or otherwise discusses how the findings fit within the field.


All research has limitations. In this section, the researcher reflects on flaws in the study, including design flaws, any response rate issues, questions that were not asked but Running head

should have been, or other problems that arise during the process. The importance of these limitations must be explained in detail, along with suggestions for how they could be eliminated or minimized in future studies.


Based on the findings of the study, the researcher should detail recommendations as follow:

 Recommendations for the practice of Healthcare Administration, as they are drawn directly from the study’s results.

 Recommendations to mitigate any research design or method limitations of the study.

 Recommendations for future studies to further investigate the research question(s) or related research streams.


While this section is somewhat subjective, the recommendations should be drawn based on the results of the study and any remaining gaps in the research stream. Please note recommendations should be discussed in detail, not presented merely as a list.


As the final section to the entire dissertation, the summary presents a concise yet thorough description of the research question(s), the answers to the question(s), and how they all apply to the practice of healthcare administration. This section places the final period in the entire story of the dissertation, summarizing its contributions to the field and the scholarly literature.

References and Appendices

The reference pages are integral to the dissertation because they are a roadmap for readers to locate the sources referenced in the paper. The writer should ensure all references are cited in the dissertation, and all citations are also referenced. Any necessary appendices should be appropriately labeled (A, B, C, etc.) and included in order at the end of the dissertation. Appendices should also be referred to at the appropriate place in the dissertation.

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