Human resources in a business deals with
the recruitment of people for jobs in an organisation or business. Their main
PLANNING THE WORKFORCE
Human resource planning is concerned with
making sure that the organisation has the right employees. They are also
concerned with making sure that the employees are of the right quality.
main problems for human resource planner are skills shortages, competition for
labour and labour turnover. The organisation tries to keep absenteeism and
accidence to minimum.
Organisations use effective health and safety
policies and good occupational health services. Successful planning must make
sure the organisation has the right number of the right type of employees.
planning must ensure the organisation has a steady supply of new management
material available to fill posts left by resignation and retirement.
HR must ensure as
much flexibility and multi skilled as possible in the workforce in numerical,
financial and functional areas.
create a competitive element to the work-place for the better long term future
of the firm and the employee.
HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING
planning is important for the following reasons:
It encourages the employer to
develop clear links between their business plans and their HR plans.
Effective control of number and
cost of staff employed.
HR can build a skill profile
for each employee to work where most value to the company.
Creates a profile of staff for
Equal Opportunity policy implementation.
Ensures that Staff fully
utilised for benefit of company, Staff work is challenging, motivating and
stimulating, increased costs (overtime) kept to a minimum, Staffs are qualified
to do job.
RECRIUTMENT AND SELECTION
Recruitment involves the first stage in
human resource and manpower management.
The following criteria will be adopted to ensure the best candidate is
- Job Analysis: This involves the
study of the requirements of the job, skills and performance that are
- Job Description: This is a
simple description of what the job involves. It allows the candidates to know what is
expected of them, while allowing the personnel managers to decide on the
qualities that the successful candidate must have.
- Person Specification: This is a profile
of the type of person needed for a particular job. E.g. Mental and
Physical requirements, skills, level of responsibility working
- Job Evaluation: This is a way
in which a business can compare the different value of different
jobs. This includes evaluating
different skills, knowledge, and amount of responsibility. This will help determine levels of pay
and other rewards. However, this
may be very subjective.
Marks and Spencer recruit staff for a
variety of reasons.
- The growth of the business
- Changing job roles within the business
- Filling vacancies created by resignation, retirement or
- Internal promotion
The growth of the business-If Marks and Spencer grow in size and opens new stores, then they
will need more people to carry out jobs. These can be existing jobs which Marks
and Spencer know how to recruit for but new jobs are opened if Marks and Spencer
were to expand into Europe because different
languages are spoken. When existing jobs are being expanded, human resources
simply need to copy existing practice on a larger scale.
job roles within the business-In recent years most
businesses including Marks and Spencer have changed their job structure. In
particular there has been a decline in many routine, standardised jobs.
Increasingly, Marks and Spencer have sought to develop new jobs involving
information and communications technology.
vacancies created by resignation, retirement or dismissal- In all organisations people moves on. They get older, they hand in
their notice or they get dismissed. In most cases it is necessary to replace
the employee. However, the manager responsible for recruitment has to decide
whether Marks and Spencer want a carbon copy of the previous job- holder or
whether the job has moved on, requiring new skills and competences.
promotion- In any organisation including Marks and Spencer
there will be opportunities for internal promotion. Internal promotion gives an
employee something to aim for. When one person is promoted it is often
necessary to replace him or her.
The recruitment process can be very costly.
It takes a great deal of time to set up an effective recruitment process –
involving deciding on what the jobs are to be recruited for will entail,
advertising, looking through applications, checking which applications best
meet the criteria set down for the post, interviewing candidates, and finally,
selecting the best candidate for the post.
It is important for Marks and Spencer to
recruit the correct person for the job first time. If they end up choosing an
unsuitable candidate for the job, the company will suffer from having a poorly
motivated person, who may make mischief within the company before walking out the
job leaving Marks and Spencer having to go through the process yet again.
PROCEDURES FOR ATTRACTING AND RECRUITING APPLICANTS
Marks and Spencer most valuable resource is
its workers. Managers therefore need to give careful thought to the needs of the
Recruiting individuals to fill particular
posts in Marks and Spencer can be done:
- Internally, by recruiting within the business
- Externally, by recruiting people from outside.
ADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECRUITMENT
Considerable savings can be made.
Individuals who are familiar with the Marks and Spencer operations will need
shorter periods of training and time for adjusting.
Marks and Spencer
is unlikely to be disrupted by someone who is not used to working with other in
Internal promotion acts
as an incentive to all staff to work harder within Marks and Spencer.
From Marks and Spencer’s
point of view, the personnel staff should already have been able to assess the
strengths and weaknesses of an insider. There is always a risk attached to
employing an outsider who may prove to be desirable on paper only.
DISADVANTAGES OF INTERNAL RECRIUTMENT
Marks and Spencer will have to
replace the person that has been promoted
An insider may be less likely
to make the essential criticisms required to get the company working more
Promotion of one person n a
company may upset another.
ADVANTAGES OF EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT
- The firm can appoint someone they really want for a particular
- The external candidate can bring in new ideas and experience
gained in other jobs and organisations.
- It may avoid jealousy that might exist between rival internal
OF EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT
There are a number of ways Marks and
Spencer can recruit externally and some of these ways are listed below:
- PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT
AGENCIES: These are companies that specialise
in the recruitment and selection of candidates.
- JOB CENTRES: This is a government agency that links employers with the
- ADVERTISING AGENCIES: They provide specialist staffs that will advice on the
appropriate advertising media, layout, and time of advertisement.
ESTABLISHMENTS: Many firms have links with universities,
colleges and schools.
- HEADHUNTING: This involves executive agencies who approach particular
individuals with a high reputation or expertise with offers of employment.
- INFORMAL NETWORKS: This involves informal links such as the old boy network.
The recruitment process provides the potential
for conflict within Marks and Spencer. If the human resources department decide
to recruit externally for a particular job vacancy, existing Marks and Spencer
employees may be disheartened at the fact that they were not given the
opportunity to apply for the position first.
PREPARING JOB DESCRIPTIONS AND PERSON SPECIFICATION
From the human resource management
department’s point of view, the purpose of recruitment is to buy in and retain
the best available human resources to meet the needs of Marks and Spencer.
Hence the first requirement is to define and set out what is involved in
This can be done by carrying out a job
analysis, which leads on to an outline job description. A job description could
be used as a job indicator for applicants. Alternatively, it could be used as a
guideline for an employee and/or line manager as to his or her role and
responsibility within Marks and Spencer.
Job descriptions can be used by Marks and Spencer to provide information
for use in drafting a situations vacant advertisement and for briefing
One of the most important parts of a job
description is the job title. The job title should give a good description of
what the job entails.
When looking through job advertisements the
first thing job applicants look for will be the job title.
POSITIONS WITHIN MARKS AND SPENCER
A job description will often establish
where an individual stands in the organisational chart in Marks and Spencer.
This will mean that it can be clearly set out who the post-holder is accountable
to, and who is accountable to him or her.
The position within Marks and Spencer will
also give a clear idea of responsibilities. Job applicants will be interest to
locate their position in order to ascertain whether their previous experience
will be extensive enough and to assess the kind of commitment they will be
expected to make to Marks and Spencer
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
A further important aspect of the job
description will be that which sets out the duties and responsibilities of job
holders. Prior to setting out a job description an organisation may carry out
an analysis of the tasks that need to be performed by a job holder, and of the
skills and qualities required.
A job specification often goes beyond a simple
description of the job by specifying the mental and physical attributes
required of the job holder.
The personnel department may therefore set
out, for its own use, a ‘person specification’, using a layout similar to the
Summary of Job
Practical and intellectual skills
The person specification can be used to:
Make sure a job advertisement conveys the
qualities prospective candidates should have.
Check candidates for the job
have the right qualities.
Question 3: Explore the recruitment
practices and procedures in your chosen organisation.
main advantage of the use of application forms is that all applicants have to
give details in a standardised way which makes the selection process and short
listing easier. The information will include details such as personal details,
qualifications, job experience, interests and hobbies, and references.
A firm may use testing in its selection process and may include:
v APTITUDE TESTS: This measure how candidates can cope with particular problems.
v ATTAINMENT TESTS: This measures how a candidate’s ability to use skills already
v PERSONALITY TESTS: These examine the candidate’s personality traits to see if the
candidate has the ideal personality for the job.
v INTELLIGENCE TESTS: These measure the candidate’s overall mental ability such as
literacy or numeric skills.
This is the process where the information
provided by applicant is matched against the recruitment criteria or
profile. This is a way of reducing the
number of candidates for the interview process.
Interviews will vary from firm to firm and
will depend on the type of job. They will vary from a short formal session to a
period of several days to include the use of selection tests to measure
aptitudes and attitudes. The object of
the interview is to collect additional information from candidates, and allow
the business to give the candidate full details about the job and organisation.
OFFERS: This will be usually a verbal agreement
given at the interview, which will be confirmed later by a formal letter and
contract of employment.
CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT
The contract of employment is a written
statement which must be given to all new employees within 12 weeks of
appointment as stated under the Employment Protection Act of 1978. This sets
out the exact conditions of service such
as the job title, start of employment, rates of pay, working conditions,
holidays, sickness and injury pay, length of notice, and discipline and
Question 4: Describe and evaluate the legal
obligation and ethical responsibilities which the candidate and interviewer
should abide by the entire recruitment and selection process.
MARKS AND SPENCER’S LEGAL OBLIGATION AND ETHICAL
There are legal obligations and ethical
responsibilities that the candidate and interviewer must respect throughout the
recruitment process. All B6 employees are protected by a variety of laws which
have been introduced in the last 25-30 years.
1. SEX DISCRIMINATION ACT 1975
law states that employers may not discriminate against candidates on the
grounds of gender. The act makes it illegal for M&S to discriminate either
- Advertising to fill job vacancies
- Appointing people to fill those vacancies
- Promoting existing staff into better job positions
- Determining the terms and conditions of the job
- Offering employees opportunities for training and developing
to the act
Private clubs- some
‘Gentlemen’s clubs’ can and do refuse to admit women.
The armed forces- recruitment
of women is restricted to specific areas
Recent additional rulings have meant that
the law has been extended. Retirement age must now be the same for both sexes
(65 years of age).
2. EQUAL PAY ACT 1970
The equal pay act requires employers to
give the same rate of pay to men and women for doing the same job. Prior to the
introduction of this act, women were often paid lower rates of pay than men for
doing the same job. Because of ‘Loop Holes’ in this act, the government
introduced the equal values amendment in 1983 which requires both men and women
to be paid the same amount if women can prove that their jobs are of ‘equal
value’ to a range of specifically named jobs held by men.
3. RACE RELATIONS ACT1976
This act makes discrimination on the
grounds of race illegal in the same areas described in the sex discrimination
act. Again there are a few exceptions to the act:
- Ethnic restaurants can specify that they want waiters/
waitresses of a certain race in order to make it look more authentic
- Social work departments can specify that they want to appoint
staff of a particular race where they have to deal with problems of people
of the same race
- Acting roles
4. DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION ACT 1995
This relatively new act updates the
protection for disabled people and put it on a similar basis as for other forms
of discrimination. This act does not cover organisations, which employ less
than 20 people. Employers must not discriminate against disabled people when:
Advertising jobs and inviting
Offering jobs after interviews
have taken place
When determining the terms and
conditions of the job
Once appointed, a disabled person has to be
treated the same as everyone else who works for the company when training or
promotion is concerned. Disabled persons cannot however expect preferential
treatment. The employer must take steps to ensure that the disabled employees
can work on the premises. These steps may include:
- Modifying the building with lifts or ramps etc.
- Changing working hours to suit the person in question
- Allowing time off for treatment and or rehabilitation
- Allowing extra training so the disabled person can carry out
- Providing an interpreter
Employers only have to do what is
reasonable. If the modifications were to be extremely expensive, it would be