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Research Strategies1 . __________ is a description of the entire stream of the participantâs behavior during a specified time period. Time sampling A specimen record Event sampling A structured observation2 . __________ is a method in which the researcher attempts to understand the unique individual child by combining data from multiple sources. Natural experiment Ethnography Microgenetic design The clinical method3 . __________ is used by review committees at universities that are charged with evaluating the ethics of research proposals. Validity Debriefing A risks-versus-benefits ratio Reliability4 . __________ is/are a technique used in experimental designs to increase the likelihood that participantsâ characteristics do not distort the results. Debriefing Adaptations periods Selective attrition Random assignment5 . A __________ design is a variation of the longitudinal approach in which researchers observe development as it is occurring. cross-sectional microgenetic ethnographic longitudinal-sequential6 . A hypothesis guides the selection of research methods and designs when little or no theory exists on a topic. is a prediction about behavior drawn from a theory. refers to an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior. tests predictions drawn from theories.7 . A major benefit of psychophysiological methods is that they provide insight into the thoughts, perceptions, and emotions of infants. extraneous influences on physiological responses are never a problem. physiological responses are not sensitive to psychological state. the interpretation of physiological responses is objective.8 . A major limitation of naturalistic observation is that the findings cannot be generalized beyond the children and settings in which the research was originally conducted. not all children have the same opportunity to display a particular behavior in everyday life. researchers often must pour over hours of videotaped records, analyzing each participantâs behavior. interpreting physiological responses involves a high degree of inference.9 . A major limitation of the clinical interview is that it does not permit people to display their thoughts in terms that are close to the way they think in everyday life. it does not yield the same depth of information as a systematic observation. the questions asked of each participant are not flexible. it may underestimate the capacities of individual who have difficulty putting their thoughts into words.10 . An advantage of cross-sectional designs is that the effects of early experience on later development can be examined. researchers do not have to be concerned about selective attrition. their validity cannot be threatened by cohort effects. it is an efficient strategy for examining individual development.11 . Both __________ and __________ are descriptive, qualitative research techniques. the clinical method; ethnography naturalistic observations; structured observations field experiments; natural experiments Event sampling; time sampling12 . Cohort effects refer to the failure to select participants who are representative of the population of interest. changes in participantsâ natural responses as a result of repeated testing. the selective loss of participants during an investigation. the effects of cultural-historical change on the accuracy of findings.13 . In a __________ design, groups of participants born in different years are followed over time. cross-sectional microgenetic longitudinal-sequential longitudinal14 . In a longitudinal design, moment-by-moment changes in a group of participants are studied over a series of closely spaced sessions. one group of participants is studied repeatedly over time. groups of participants born in different years are followed over time. groups of participants of different ages are studied at the same point in time.15 . Inferences about cause and effect relationships can be made in an experimental design because researchers track developmental change as it is occurring. the researcher directly manipulates changes in the independent variable. treatment conditions already exist in the real world. participants are systematically assigned to treatment conditions.16 . Natural experiments are less precise than field experiments because obtained group differences may be due to variables other than the treatment. comparisons are limited to age-group averages. findings from natural experiments may not generalize to the real world. the accuracy of observations may be reduced by observer bias and observer influence.17 . One way to determine the validity of research methods is to compare the extent to which two independent observers agree on their observations of people’s actions. compare childrenâs scores on different halves of a single test. compare childrenâs responses to the same measure on separate occasions. see how effective a method is in predicting the behavior that the experimenter expects it to predict.18 . One way to minimize observer bias in systematic observations is to ask individuals who are part of the childâs natural environment to do the observing. use adaptations periods. use observers who have no knowledge of the researcherâs hypothesis. take children through a simulated experience.19 . The right of research participants to have explained to them all aspects of a study that may affect their willingness to participate is known as protection from harm. debriefing. informed consent. a risks-versus-benefits ratio.20 . Which of the following correlations is moderate and negative? -.18 .04 -.78 -.44