1 . __________ emphasizes one course of development. Correct Answer Behaviorism Information processing emphasizes one course. Changes studied characterize most or all children. Dynamic systems perspectives emphasizes many possible courses. Biological makeup, everyday tasks, and social experiences vary, yielding wide individual differences in specific skills. Vygotskyâs sociocultural theory2 . __________ emphasizes that children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world. Correct Answer Psychosocial theory Psychosexual theory Cognitive developmental theory Social learning theory3 . __________ refers to a time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge and in which the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. Correct Answer Stage Imprinting Chronosystem A sensitive period4 . __________ refers to procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses. Correct Answer Imitation Operant conditioning Behavior modification Observational learning5 . __________ views the mind as a complex, symbol-manipulating system. Correct Answer Information processing Dynamic systems Ecological systems Psychoanalytic6 . According to __________, the childâs mind, body, and physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills. Correct Answer dynamic systems perspective information processing theory psychoanalytic theory ecological systems theory7 . According to Piagetâs cognitive developmental theory, thought becomes symbolic in the Correct Answer preoperational stage. concrete operational stage. formal operational stage. sensorimotor stage.8 . An approach that emphasizes the role of modeling, or observational learning, in the development of behavior is known as Correct Answer operant conditioning. classical conditioning. social learning theory. drive reduction theory.9 . Child development theorists who emphasize the impact of __________ on individual development typically stress the importance of __________. Correct Answer early experiences; environment heredity; change context; one course of development stages; continuous change10 . In a historic experiment with Little Albert, __________ demonstrated that classical conditioning could be applied to childrenâs behavior. Correct Answer Bandura Skinner Watson Pavlov11 . In ecological systems theory, the __________ consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources. Correct Answer macrosystem microsystem mesosystem exosystem12 . In Freudâs psychosexual theory, Correct Answer the superego works to reconcile id impulses and ego demands. children develop a sexual desire for the other-sex parent during the genital stage. id impulses transfer to the genitals during the latency stage. extreme orderliness and cleanliness in adulthood is often the result of conflicts about anal control during toddlerhood.13 . Information processing and Piagetâs cognitive developmental theory differ MOST on which of the following issues? Correct Answer one course of development versus many courses stability versus change nature versus nurture continuous development versus discontinuous development14 . Seventeenth-century philosopher John Locke Correct Answer regarded children as miniature already-formed adults. believed that children were naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong. recommended restrictive parenting practices as the most efficient means for taming children. viewed children as a tabula rasa or âblank slate.â15 . One problem with government-funded child and family programs in the United States is that Correct Answer there are no special interest groups who act as advocates for childrenâs causes. no federal dollars have been allocated to child care. most are aimed at handling problems after they have occurred rather than preventing problems before they occur. no new policy initiatives have been developed to improve that status of children.16 . The field of child development Correct Answer focuses on all aspects of development from birth until adolescence. focuses mainly on research topics that are only of scientific interest. is interdisciplinary. deals mainly with child-rearing practices.17 . The most rapid period of development is Correct Answer adolescence. middle childhood. infancy and toddlerhood. the prenatal period.18 . The normative approach to child study was developed by Correct Answer Darwin. Hall and Gesell. Baldwin. Binet and Simon.19 . The poor rankings of American children on many childhood social indicators is particularly disturbing because Correct Answer the United States is a collectivist society. child development researchers in the United States lack involvement in policy development. the United States is among the wealthiest nations and has the broadest knowledge base for intervening effectively in childrenâs lives. the United States provides all families with universal health care and free or inexpensive child care.20 . Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky Correct Answer emphasized the role of bidirectional influences in development. viewed cognitive development as a socially mediated process. emphasized discontinuous change. focused on development throughout the lifespan.