Climatologists continue to debate global warming. Which of the following is NOT an argument against the global warming hypothesis?

Climatologists continue to debate global warming. Which of the following is NOT an argument against the global warming hypothesis?

Climate variations are normal, cyclical processes.

The sun may be putting out more radiation then in the measurable past.

Sunspot activity demonstrates cyclical patterns of activity.

Average temperatures worldwide have actually been dropping slightly.

Question 2.2. (TCO 2) The realist-constructionist debate in environmental sociology is characterized by differences in materialist versus idealist explanations of social life. Which of the following distinguishes a constructionist perspective on environment problems? (Points : 5)

Environmental problems need to be understood in terms of the threats posed by society’s current ecological relations.

There is no difference between the realist and constructionist approaches to environmental problems-they are in agreement.

The way we conceptualize and define environmental problems is a key focus.

Constructionists do not believe that we have environmental problems, rather the concerns are all constructed by alarmists.

Question 3.3. (TCO 3) The 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three scientists whose work led to discovery of the causes for the thinning of the earth’s atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Which of the following was NOT one of these scientists? (Points : 5)

Mario Molina

Paul Crutzen

Sherwood Rowland

Aldo Leopold

Question 4.4. (TCO 4) Who is/was the “original affluent society” according to Marshall Sahlins? (Points : 5)

Hunter gatherers

Agrarian pastoralists

The aristocracy of Europe and Asia

Wealthy Western capitalists

Question 5.5. (TCO 5) The hau of material objects refers to: (Points : 5)

superstitious belief in animate objects.

the utility of material objects that serve our interests.

sentimental connections and social relationships embodied in things.

the respect we have for tools and technologies created by humans.

Question 6.6. (TCO 6) According to your text, automobiles are implicated in which of the following environmental problems? (Points : 5)

Acid rain

Reduced fertility in animal species

Oil spills

All of the above

Question 7.7. (TCO 7) According to Malthus, population grows: (Points : 5)

incrementally, in fits and starts.

at a steady, measured pace.

arithmetically.

exponentially.

Question 8.8. (TCO 7) Which of the following does Sen claim will NOT insure food availability? (Points : 5)

Dependable food imports

Land reform

Steady employment

Democracy

Question 9.9. (TCO 3) What percentage of the world’s original forests remain? (Points : 5)

100%

68%

50%

0%

Question 10.10. (TCO 5) What is the average number of traffic deaths each year in the U.S.? (Points : 5)

Under 4,000

About 10,000

About 40,000

Well over 100,000

Page 2

Question 1. 1. (TCO 1) Define environmental sociology and what environmental sociologists study. If you were an environmental sociologist, explain your daily day. Compare and contrast how environmental sociologists differ from other types of sociologists. (Points : 30)

Question 2. 2. (TCO 2) Describe the environments impact on race, poverty, and disempowerment. Explain how this impacts human inequality and how it creates a community of haves and have nots. Compare and contrast some ways you would solve some of these issues of inequality. (Points : 30)

Question 3. 3. (TCO 4) Describe what materialism is and how someone can be materialistic. Give a few detailed examples. Identify why environmental sociologists are so interested in studying materialism. What are some ways our society can be less materialistic? What are some of the positives and negatives of materialism? (Points : 30)

Question 4. 4. (TCO 6) Describe green technology, and give a few examples of green technology currently being used in our society. Also, describe how green technology can be used to make our society more sustainable. Pick one form of green technology and describe in detail how it produces energy more cleanly compared to petroleum sources. (Points : 30)

Question 5. 5. (TCO 7) Describe in detail our population’s impact on the environment. Provide a few detailed examples. Also, compare and contrast population rates in different parts of the world. Which areas are increasing more than others, and why? Do you think the human population will continue to always increase? (Points : 30)

fnal

Final Exam – Page 1

Question 1.1. (TCO 8) As the Ojibwa people of Grassy Narrows found out, the symptoms of methyl mercury poisoning mimic the effects of: (Points : 5)

Alcohol abuse

Cocaine addiction

Hyperactivity

None of the above

Question 2.2. (TCO 8) In Melanie Dupuis’s phrase NIMB, the B stands for: (Points : 5)

Backyard

Body

Building

Business

Question 3.3. (TCO 8) A University of Massachusetts study refutes claims of pervasive environmental racism. Which of the following statements characterizes how this study was conducted? (Points : 5)

The study was funded by the largest U. S. handler of toxic waste.

The study excluded poor rural areas where a high percentage of minorities reside.

The study excluded many areas where toxic waste landfills are located.

All of the above

Question 4.4. (TCO 8) Ulrich Beck argues that the driving force behind the risk society can be characterized by which of the following statements? (Points : 5)

I am hungry.

I am angry.

I am lonely.

I am afraid.

Question 5.5. (TCO 8) Horizontal knowledge gaps are: (Points : 5)

gaps between experts and other experts.

gaps between experts and non experts.

gaps between professors and students.

gaps between parents and children.

Question 6.6. (TCO 8) Dialogue: (Points : 5)

can help us to trust the experts more.

can help us find more certainly in life.

can help us renew faith in science.

can help us be more certain about our decisions.

Question 7.7. (TCO 9) The most important feature of the carnivalesque body is: (Points : 5)

it is a source of bathroom humor.

it is forever interacting and exchanging with the natural world.

it is the source of our individualism.

it is dirty, indecent, and obscene.

Question 8.8. (TCO 9) Which of the following is a key characteristic of patriarchal dualisms? (Points : 5)

They are never gendered.

They reflect gradients on a continuum.

They always imply a hierarchy or moral judgment.

They reflect the interdependence between categories.

Question 9.9. (TCO 9) Through an ethnographic study of an English village, the author
of our text demonstrates that: (Points : 5)

patriarchal stereotypes may be internalized.

the British are more environmentally sensitive than Americans.

patriarchal dualisms are peculiar to American attitudes on the environment.

men describe natural experiences using “metaphors of nurturing.”

Question 10.10. (TCO 9) The poetry of the Roman Horace is used by the author to illustrate what point? (Points : 5)

The moral superiority of environmental attitudes of the early Romans

The debate that raged as early as 20 BCE regarding the ethics of human transformation of the environment

The environmental destruction of lands conquered during Roman expansion

The power of poetry to express appreciation for the environment


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