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a) Briefly describe the basic construction of a cyclotron as well as it’s principle of operation. [15]

18 / 01 / 2019 Physics

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Question1                                     [26 Marks]

A lot of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine are produced in a cyclotron.

a)    Briefly describe the basic construction of a cyclotron as well as it’s principle of operation.                             [15]
b)    Give few examples of isotopes  produced in the cyclotron (for SPECT and PET) and write down the nuclear reactions which are used in their production.                                     [5]
c)    What reactions can be used for the production of iodine 123 ? Which one of these is practically used for production of this isotope for medical use and why?                                     [6]


Question 2                                      [12marks]

During production  of a 99Mo/99mTc generator, 100 GBq of pure molybdenum 99Mo was loaded into the column on February 1-st at 12:00. Immediately after generator’s preparation the first elution was made. Subsequently, the generator was delivered  to the hospital and  was used clinically for the first time on February 4-th at 9:00.

Calculate:

a)    The mass  of 99Mo loaded during production.                 [3]
b)    Activity of 99Mo at time of first use in the hospital            [1]
c)    Activity of 99mTc obtained during this elution                 [2]
d)    Mass of technetium 99mTc in a syringe prepared for patient if activity in it is 500 MBq                                    [3]

Explain, why activity 99mTc obtained in practice will be lower than calculated in c.                                             [3]

Question 3                                     [30 marks]

a)    Describe the method of registration of images in positron emission tomography and the construction of the PET-scanner            [15]
b)    Explain role of the CT scanner  in PET-CT  imaging device         [5]
c)    During PET imaging beside true coincidence events another “non-true” events are registered.  What are the sources of these events? How do these influence the image? How can we eliminate/minimise these effects?
[10]

Question 4.                                     [8 marks]

Describe briefly which physiological process is responsible for the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in :

a)    131I uptake in thyroid during hyperthyroidism therapy             [2]
b)    99mTc-HMDP (biphsphonate  complex) for bone scintigraphy    [2]
c)    99mTc  pertechnetate  for thyroid  scintigraphy             [2]
d)    18F-FDG for PET scan                         [2]



Question 5                                     [21marks]

Localization of the sentinel lymph node with radioisotope detection  is widely used in surgical practice. Please describe :

a)    anatomical and physiological basis of this method              [5]
b)    radiopharmaceutical used in sentinel node procedure             [4]
c)    intraoperative probe (construction, special requirements for use in theatre)
[5]
d)    typical indications for this procedure                    [5]
e)    clinical role of this procedure                          [5]


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