This paper circulates around the core theme of a) Briefly describe the basic construction of a cyclotron as well as it’s principle of operation.  together with its essential aspects. It has been reviewed and purchased by the majority of students thus, this paper is rated 4.8 out of 5 points by the students. In addition to this, the price of this paper commences from £ 132. To get this paper written from the scratch, order this assignment now. 100% confidential, 100% plagiarism-free.
Question1 [26 Marks]
A lot of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine are produced in a cyclotron.
a) Briefly describe the basic construction of a cyclotron as well as it’s principle of operation. 
b) Give few examples of isotopes produced in the cyclotron (for SPECT and PET) and write down the nuclear reactions which are used in their production. 
c) What reactions can be used for the production of iodine 123 ? Which one of these is practically used for production of this isotope for medical use and why? 
Question 2 [12marks]
During production of a 99Mo/99mTc generator, 100 GBq of pure molybdenum 99Mo was loaded into the column on February 1-st at 12:00. Immediately after generator’s preparation the first elution was made. Subsequently, the generator was delivered to the hospital and was used clinically for the first time on February 4-th at 9:00.
a) The mass of 99Mo loaded during production. 
b) Activity of 99Mo at time of first use in the hospital 
c) Activity of 99mTc obtained during this elution 
d) Mass of technetium 99mTc in a syringe prepared for patient if activity in it is 500 MBq 
Explain, why activity 99mTc obtained in practice will be lower than calculated in c. 
Question 3 [30 marks]
a) Describe the method of registration of images in positron emission tomography and the construction of the PET-scanner 
b) Explain role of the CT scanner in PET-CT imaging device 
c) During PET imaging beside true coincidence events another “non-true” events are registered. What are the sources of these events? How do these influence the image? How can we eliminate/minimise these effects?
Question 4. [8 marks]
Describe briefly which physiological process is responsible for the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in :
a) 131I uptake in thyroid during hyperthyroidism therapy 
b) 99mTc-HMDP (biphsphonate complex) for bone scintigraphy 
c) 99mTc pertechnetate for thyroid scintigraphy 
d) 18F-FDG for PET scan 
Question 5 [21marks]
Localization of the sentinel lymph node with radioisotope detection is widely used in surgical practice. Please describe :
a) anatomical and physiological basis of this method 
b) radiopharmaceutical used in sentinel node procedure 
c) intraoperative probe (construction, special requirements for use in theatre)
d) typical indications for this procedure 
e) clinical role of this procedure