Pearson BTEC Level 3 certificate in
preparing to work in adult social care (QCF)
1. Physical Abuse - Physical
abuse is any intentional and unwanted contact with you or something close to
your body. The signs and symptoms of physical abuse can include being punched,
bitten, strangled or even kicked. This type of behaviour causes bruising and
pain and is rather unhealthy for someone. Moreover, the factors that may
include to an individual being more vulnerable to physical abuse can be
isolation or being vulnerable. This can cause an individual too not socialise
with anyone and they would simply think/feel worthless too anyone who thinks
that that they are better than them.
Sexual abuse – Sexual abuse involves touching activities, and
this is when an abuser attempts to make physical contact with you by physically
touching any part of the body where the individual would feel uncomfortable. It
can involve rape, forcing someone to take part in sexual activity or
masturbation. The signs and symptoms of sexual abuse could be that children
begin to watch pornography at a young age, cuts and bleeding around vaginal
area. The factors that may include to an individual being more vulnerable to
sexual abuse can be emotional stress and that can be poor self-esteem, avoiding
relationships or possibly not greeting people handshakes or hugging. Also,
anxiety and stress can be very common signs and symptoms of sexual abuse.
Emotional/psychological abuse – Psychological abuse is when
someone tells you that you are worthless, telling them that they are weak and
cannot look after themselves this can then cause self-neglect on the
individual. The signs and symptoms of psychological abuse are - isolation
keeping yourself locked up in a room or house, not socialising, self-harm, mood
swings every so often and feeling rather miserable. The factors that may
contribute to an individual being vulnerable from emotional/psychological abuse
are that they will always feel worthless and will not speak with their family
members or friends about problems or issues they have. There would be a lack of
trust worthiness and interrogation by questions from people.
Financial abuse – Financial abuse is when someone attempts to
unlawfully attain your assets e.g. properties, money and bank statements. Signs
and symptoms of financial abuse can be signs of distress, tearfulness, anger,
insomnia and low self-esteem. The factors that may contribute to an individual
being more from financial abuse can be stopping you from getting/keeping your
job, not allowing you to spend on yourself as well as your family members and
running up debts in your name.
Institutional abuse – Institutional abuse can be a range of
acts similar too home based child abuse, such as neglect, physical abuse and
unfair behaviour. It can normally occur within foster homes and residential
homes. The signs and symptoms of institutional abuse are clients not getting
satisfactory standards of care, i.e. being hungry or dehydrated, misuse of
medication also not offering choice or promoting independence. The factors that
may contribute from an individual being more vulnerable from institutional
abuse can be would have to depend on others and not do things independently.
Also, people feeling lonely and neglected within their own homes.
Self-neglect – Self-neglect is when
a person fails to take care of themselves as this can have a negative impact on
them because they will become depressed, have poor health and not able to look
after themselves as they will continue to self-neglect. The signs and symptoms
of self-neglect are that individuals will not feel cared for and would neglect
themselves, another sign is poor personal hygiene, hazardous and unsafe living
conditions. The factors that may contribute from an individual from
self-neglect includes the person’s wellbeing, and personal hygiene and health
surrounding are too be of high standards otherwise they will be unhappy and
would not continue to stay in the care setting.
Neglect by others – This is failure
to provide the exact care standards and assistance too service users e.g.
leaving them unsupervised, not providing meals/medication on time. The signs
and symptoms of neglect by others can be e.g. personal care, if personal care
is not carried out and the client is unclean and unsatisfied with the job you
have done this can be a form of neglect. However, unsafe living conditions e.g.
no heat, running water or faulty wiring can be neglect to service users because
they would expect to live peacefully without any problems. The factors that may
contribute to an individual being vulnerable from neglect by others can be that
the individual would not be happy and able to express his/her feelings to
another professional, lack of trustworthiness. Health can deteriorate and they
would always feel lonely and neglected by carers.
Know how to respond to suspected or
1. Explain the actions to take if
there are suspicions that an individual is being abused?
The actions to take if there are suspicions of an individual
being abused are too ensure that you do be supportive. Stay close to the
alleged victim immediately after the disclosure to provide some sense of security
and trustworthiness. Also, assure the individual that he/she has done the right
thing by telling you about the allegations, and that he/she is safe and will no
longer feel unsecure.
2. Explain the actions to take if an
individual alleges that the are being abused?
As a support worker, do assure the alleged victim that someone will stand
by her/him through the process of getting help. However, I need to listen closely
if the victim wants to talk, but not ask questions beyond what is necessary to
protect the victim and preserve evidence.
3. Identify ways to ensure that evidence of
abuse is prevented?
Well firstly the manager of the company needs to be informed of the alleged
abused so that further enquiries are put forward. Also, an abuse form needs to
be complete about the alleged abuse so that you as a support worker are safe
and you are doing your job correctly.
Identify national policies and
local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse? Explain
the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from
There are many national policies and local systems that relate to
safeguarding and protection from abuse. There is the Safeguarding Vulnerable
Groups Act 2006, the Vetting and Barring Scheme run by the Independent
Safeguarding Authority (ISA), Criminal Records Bureau, Human Rights Act 1998.
Also, Local Systems – Safeguarding Adults Boards, Safeguarding policies and procedures
for vulnerable adults. However, there is the Police and their role is to
safeguard vulnerable adults, investigate all reports of vulnerable adult abuse
and protect and uphold the rights of vulnerable adults. The CQC are a national
policy as they monitor and provide guidance on what all health and social care
providers must do to safeguard vulnerable adults from abuse; the safeguarding
policies, procedures and systems developed are in place to prevent vulnerable
adults from being abused.
Identify reports into serious
failures to protect individuals from abuse?
elderly residents who died at `Britain`s worst care home` have today called for
a public inquiry after a review to prevent a repeat of the `institutionalised
abuse`, which led to five deaths.
A Serious Case
Review was launched following an inquest into the deaths of 19 people at the
now-defunct Orchid View home in Copthorne in West Sussex.
today welcomed the call for change but called for a further public inquiry into
the scandal, adding they hope the lasting legacy will be major reform of the
Coroner Penelope Schofield last year heavily criticised the quality of care at
the Southern Cross-run home, identifying a catalogue of failings.
left in soiled bedsheets, their call bells ignored or left out of reach.
inquest`s conclusion, she said: `There was institutionalised abuse throughout
the home and it started, in my view, at a very early stage, and nobody did
anything about it.
Identify sources of information
and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from
You can visit the Local Authority Adult Services Department like Social
or approach your manager or colleagues for further advice. Also, you can
view the company’s policies and procedures on safeguarding. Surf the internet
for further advice. Approaching Care Quality Commission (CQC) provide maximum
support and advice on safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse.
You can read books, and gain extra knowledge from Training
and advice centers.
ways to reduce the likelihood of abuse
Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced
Working with person centered values -
Person-centered values include the individuality of the person, the rights of
the individual, the individual’s choice, the individual’s privacy, the
individual’s independence, the individual’s dignity and the individual being
respected. If person centered values are taken into consideration when
supporting an individual there is less likely to be abuse as all the staff will
be working in the same way and will feel shamed if they abuse because of the
way that they have been taught to work. Individuals decide what to do, where to
go, what clothes to wear and are treated with dignity, respect, confidentiality
and can make their own choices.
Encouraging active participation - Active
participation is a way of working that recognizes an individual’s right to
participate in the activities and relationships of everyday life as
independently as possible; the individual is regarded as an active partner in
their own care or support, rather than a passive recipient. Therefore, if the
individual participates actively in their daily activities, which is what I
practice, then the risk of abuse is low. An example of this can be in choosing
the kind of sport the individuals want to participate
in, maybe they can get a list of what sport everyone wants to play that way
everyone is happy, and you are promoting independence and participation. The
individual plays whatever he/she wants and enjoys with little or no
Promoting choice and rights – All Individuals
are promoted and supported to make their choices in anything they want like in
choosing food or drink, in what to wear, whether to use hot or cold water to
bathe, etc. No individual would cause any harm upon themselves as they will be
aware of impacts thus abuse is reduced and controlled. Individuals rights are
promoted throughout the service and this with the support from the careers. All
service user that we support have the right to do anything that they wish to do
and if it is what they want then we cannot stop them from doing so however if
it is not dangerous; a risk assessment is then done to stop any abuse
happening. At my workplace, I would ensure that I promote service users’ rights
and choices by allowing them to make their own choices and support them to have
the rights of anyone else.
to recognize and report unsafe practice
Describe unsafe practices that may
affect the well-being of individuals? Within a work place unsafe practices are conditions
like cross-contamination which usually occur and can affect the well-being of
the individual and others. Improper hand washing can also pose a risk. Also,
unsafe practices like dirty kitchen surfaces and equipment can spread
infections, not covering hair when cooking can become a risk to an individual and
if anyone does not report faulty equipment then it can become a large risk to
the individuals as they can trip over and hurt themselves. Other unsafe
practices which also amount to abuse can occur such as leaving a service user
on the toilet too long, ignoring or not listening to them that is neglect is
not acceptable when working with vulnerable people. As a support worker, I ensure
that I keep to all the procedures for checking for abuse and the wellbeing of
the individuals that I work with; I will do this by following these and
individual’s care plan I will keep within the minimum standards of care and
work in a person-centered way to make sure all individuals are happy and safe
within their environment.
Explain the actions to take if unsafe
practices have been identified? If unsafe practices have been identified within
my company, I will follow the whistle blowing procedure and report to the
appropriate person(s). I will approach my manger and ensure he/she is notified
and if it involves my manager then I will approach the safeguarding team and
someone higher than my manager. However, as part of my role I will monitor all
unsafe practices and make sure that I record and report in full all the
evidence and then will talk to my manager because all unsafe practices are
dangerous practices that could cause harm to the individual and others around.
Describe the action to take if suspended
abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in
response? If suspended abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but has not
been taken into consideration, then as part of my job role I will approach to
someone higher than my manger so that it can be avoided in future. However, if
my manager has connection to the situation I will report to management,
safeguarding team and then care quality commission so that they ensure that
matters are dealt with accordingly. An example of this would be that if one of
the service users at my company wasn’t prompted daily to brush his teeth and
then the changes were made by other colleagues and ensured the individual
brushed his teeth I would need to record all the information and inform my
manger to show there are doing it correctly however if this was not done
accurately then I would need to follow the whistle blowing procedure.